OP Stack
Fault Proofs
FP Mainnet Security

Fault Proofs Mainnet Security

Source code for Fault Proof Mainnet contracts approved by Optimism Governance can be found here (opens in a new tab).

This page details changes to the security model of the OP Stack with the introduction of the Fault Proof Mainnet upgrade. The most significant change introduced by the Fault Proof Mainnet upgrade is the modification of the OptimismPortal to reference the DisputeGameFactory instead of the permissioned L2OutputOracle.

  • The DisputeGameFactory contract generates FaultDisputeGame contract instances that each act as a host to a proposal about the state of the OP Stack chain at a given block number.
  • Unlike the L2OutputOracle, the DisputeGameFactory contract offers users the ability to permissionlessly play "fault dispute games" in which the correctness of the proposal is determined programmatically.

Security Model

Fault Proof Mainnet is a large contract upgrade that introduces a number of novel components. Given the relative complexity of these novel components, the approach to security for FPM has been to limit the blast radius of potential bugs to very specific contracts and fallback mechanisms that can be easily audited.

Handling Invalid Game Results

All of the security mechanisms put in place generally revolve around the possibility that a FaultDisputeGame contract may incorrectly finalize an invalid game result. There are two variations of this:

  1. Resolving that an invalid proposal is valid potentially leading to stolen funds, and
  2. Resolving that a valid proposal is invalid causing liveness delays or failures.

Both cases would cause honest challengers to lose bonds (unless the Guardian stepped in). Potential impact is managed through the introduction of a number of safeguards within the OptimismPortal and FaultDisputeGame contracts.

Safeguards Within OptimismPortal

The OptimismPortal contract includes various security mechanisms that allow the Guardian and SystemOwner roles to collaborate to prevent invalid proposals from impacting withdrawals.

  • The SystemOwner can replace the Guardian address.
  • The Guardian can trigger the global pause mechanism found in the original system.
  • The Guardian can "blacklist" specific FaultDisputeGame contracts that resolve incorrectly.
  • The Guardian can change the respected type of FaultDisputeGame contract in the case that an entire class of FaultDisputeGame contracts is found to have critical bugs. If desired, the Guardian can also choose to revert to a PermissionedDisputeGame contract that only allows specific roles to submit and challenge proposals.

Safeguards Within FaultDisputeGame

The FaultDisputeGame contracts store bonds within a DelayedWETH contract that is managed by the SystemOwner. Withdrawals from the DelayedWETH contract are delayed which gives the SystemOwner the ability to manually recover from situations in which bonds would be incorrectly distributed. This delay is set to 7 days on OP Mainnet to give the SystemOwner or Guardian sufficient time to respond to potential security concerns.

Safeguards Within DelayedWETH

  • The SystemOwner can replace the Guardian address.
  • The SystemOwner can hold funds from any specific DisputeGame contract.
  • The SystemOwner can remove funds from the DelayedWETH contract if the issue extends to so many DisputeGame contracts that holding funds from specific contracts is not viable.
  • The Guardian can trigger the global pause mechanism to halt WETH withdrawals.

Cumulative Security Impact

As with the original system, the cumulative effect of these security capabilities is that the Guardian role provides fast response capabilities while the SystemOwner can always step in to resolve all classes of bugs that could result in a loss of funds. The most significant change in security model with the introduction of Fault Proof Mainnet is that SystemOwner can take a more passive role as invalid proposals will generally be rejected by the Fault Proof system while the Guardian can act as a backstop only in case of a failure in the fault proof game.

Next Steps

  • See the FP Components for an overview of FP system components and how they work together to enhance decentralization in the Optimism ecosystem.
  • See the specs (opens in a new tab) for detailed information about the entire FP program, FP virtual machine, and dispute game.